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What is a Neutralization Titration?

What is a Neutralization Titration?

[Neutralization Titration]

Among representative substances called acids, there are such acids as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid.

These acids, besides both changing blue-colored litmus to red, share the properties of reacting to such metals as magnesium and producing oxygen thereby.

Acid electrolytically disassociates as follows, and produces hydrogen ions (H+).

For example, hydrochloric acid electrolitically disassociates this way:

HCl → H+ + Cl-

 

Also, alkali is a substance which, in addition to changing red-colored litmus to blue, reacts with acid to cause it to lose its acid qualities.

The representative substances called alkali include sodium hydrate, potassium hydrate, and calcium hydrate.

Alkali electrolitically disassociates as follows, and produces hydroxide ions (OH-).

For example, sodium hydrate electrolitically disassociates this way:

NaOH → Na+ + OH-

 

When a sodium hydrate (NaOH) solution is gradually added to hydrochloric acid (HCI), the acidic qualities of the acid slowly weaken, and eventually both the acidic and alkaline qualities are lost. When this state is achieved, it is said to have reached the point of neutralization.

[Hydrochloric Acid]              [Sodium Hydrate]

HCl ⇔ H+ + Cl-                    NaOH ⇔ Na+ + OH-

H+ + OH- → H2O

 

Looking at hydrogen ion concentration and number of hydroxide ions which have reached the point of neutralization, the amount of hydrogen ions emitted from the acid, and the amount of hydroxide ions emitted from the alkali, have become equal.

The reaction between acid and alkali is called a neutralization reaction, and the method of using this reaction to find the amount of alkali or acid for which the concentration is not known is called neutralization titration.